The Royal Navy Type 23 Frigate had been searching for the submarine after it disappeared from the ship's radar in the Arctic Circle shortly before the incident took place.
The submarine hit the warship's sonar - a piece of equipment being towed hundreds of metres behind it, which was fitted with sensitive hydrophones for listening under water.
The incident, which happened in late 2020, was captured by a documentary crew from Channel 5 who were filming a television series called Warship: Life At Sea.
The Ministry of Defence has since confirmed the collision between the submarine and the warship, with a UK defence force source telling the BBC that it was not thought to have been deliberate.
The collision reportedly caused damage to HMS Northumberland's sonar, with the ship returning to a port in Scotland to replace the damaged equipment.
The MoD, which does not usually comment on operations, was forced to do so on this occasion because the incident was caught on camera.
A spokesman said: "In late 2020 a Russian submarine being tracked by HMS Northumberland came into contact with her towed array sonar.
"The Royal Navy regularly tracks foreign ships and submarines in order to ensure the defence of the United Kingdom."
Named after the Duke of Northumberland, the ship specialises in anti-submarine warfare.
It last visited the North East in February 2020 when it docked at the Port of Tyne International Ferry Terminal in North Shields to strengthen its ties with its affiliated county.